DMPK Services

GVK BIO offers a broad range of DMPK services to support you Drug Discovery and Development needs. Our DMPK studies team provides customized DMPK assays in a cost-effective manner. We have capabilities to conduct Drug ability, Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetic studies from Target to IND filing. Our DMPK studies team works with the objective that no development candidate should fail in the clinic due to an unforeseen efficacy, metabolic, pharmacokinetic (PK Studies) or toxicity properties. We provide DMPK services and bioanalytical/pharmacokinetic studies that span all stages of drug discovery, including exploratory, hit-to-lead, lead optimization and candidate selection, as well as the preclinical IND-enabling studies. So, leverage on our ADME/DMPK services that help you make informed decisions.

Studies determining Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) patterns in laboratory animals and humans are an integral part of the Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics (DMPK) services provided by GVK BIO. DMPK studies team basically comprises in vitro, in vivo, met-ID and pre-formulation groups managed by highly experienced and matured scientific people. Our DMPK technical, research and development services meet the highest standards of professional performance to satisfy the unique requirements of our clients. We work closely with our clients to identify their requirements and clarify their expectations, including cost and time constraints. Our DMPK Studies team has published several research articles in peer reviewed international journals and presented posters in conferences.

With our range of In vitro DMPK assays we can help you identify and mitigate against ADME related issues very early in your drug discovery projects. Our In vitro DMPK studies are a cost-effective way to create an understanding of the drug metabolism profile of your candidate compound(s)/series. This information, along with key physicochemical parameters, provides a platform to predict the In vivo PK behaviour of the selected compounds.

We have a DMPK studies team of highly trained In Vitro and In Vivo PK scientists with extensive global drug discovery experience. Excellent client communication with collaborative and flexible approach from our DMPK studies team facilitates rapid and sound decision making in your drug discovery endeavors. We take great pride in our quality results and impeccable customer care of our DMPK services team. Our services include comprehensive set of high-quality in vitro ADME services to help you initiate and complete your IND-enabling programs.With strong credentials and experience in chemistry, biology, pharmacology, and formulation development, the DMPK services team performs studies with a wide variety of animal models in an AAALAC accredited environment.

There are many contract research organizations (CROs) across the globe that handle outsourced DMPK projects from clients. GVK BIO has experience of handling over 1200+ studies every year with rapid turn-around times and provide you the quality and depth of data for your to take appropriate decisions. As a CRDO, we help extend services beyond a CRO. Hence outsourcing DMPK studies to us is viable business option.

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the top 4 reasons to chose our DMPK Services

  • 1

    Faster Troubleshooting

    Our DMPK studies team is geared up for quick response time.

  • 2

    Quality and Depth

    Data from our DMPK studies is validated and used by clients from the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, agrochemical, tobacco, cosmetics, health care companies and academic organisations. A number of different DMPK reporting options are available.

  • 3

    Quick Turnaround Time

    For most of the core DMPK services is within 3-5 working days. In fact, the turn around time for our DMPK studies is one of the quickest in the industry.

  • 4

    Extended Support

    Our highly trained Principal DMPK Scientists on hand to explain results and suggest the most appropriate experimental strategy. Extended support is provided by the DMPK studies team to the customers in their drug discovery and development process.

DMPK services across drug discovery

DMPK Assays

Assessment of Physiochemical & In Vitro ADME/DMPK Properties

• In silico properties
• Solubility
• Log D
• Microsomal stability
• CYP inhibition

Optimisation of Physiochemical & Druggable Properties

• Metabolic stability
• CYP inhibition
• Permeability
• Plasma protein binding
In vivo PK studies (rodent)
• Reactive metabolite

Optimisation of Druggable Properties, IVIVC, PK/PD Correlation

• Permeability
• Plasma protein binding
PK Studies (rodent)
• PK Studies (non-rodent)
• Target tissue exposure
• Blood/plasma partioning
• IVIVC, renal/biliary CL
• Mass balance
• PK/PD Studies
• Met id (soft spot)

Dose Range Finding, Safety/Tox Assessment, Interspecies Scaling

• Dose range finding (rodent and non-rodent)
• PK/PD Studies
• Tissue distribution
• Food effect
• Metabolite profiling
• Safety profiling
• Toxicokinetics
• CYP induction
• Interspecies scaling

Physicochemical Characterisation

For drugs to be effective they must be able to reach their targets in efficacious concentrations.

A number of physicochemical parameters obtained in the following assays are used to assess the potential utility of compounds as therapeutic agents:

  • Aqueous solubility (pION, Kinetic and Thermodynamic)
  • Partition coefficient (log D) BBB and GIT
  • Ionisation constant (pKa) with spectrophotometer
  • Chemical stability

Case Study: pION Solubility


The preferred route of drug delivery is oral administration. Intestinal membrane permeability is a critical characteristic that determines the extent and rate of drug absorption and ultimately affects the bioavailability. The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2, and Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line, MDCKII, are used as an alternative in vitro permeability model. PAMPA (parallel artificial membrane permeability assay) is also used to determine the passive permeability of the compounds.


  • PAMPA: GIT/BBB/skin
  • Caco-2 (Pgp efflux)/MDCK permeability/BCRP
  • Skin and buccal permeability by Franz Diffusion Method
  • Ongoing Developments
  • MDCK -Transfected ABC transporters (stable cell lines)
  • SLC transporters: OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and OCT1 (Hepatic)
  • OAT1, OAT3 & OCT2 (Renal)

Case Study: Skin Pampa
Case Study: In Vitro: Skin Absorption Studies (OECD TG: 428)


Protein Binding
GVK BIO is a specialist provider of DMPK studies and provide a range of in vitro protein binding studies.The free drug concentration is more closely related to the activity of the drug than the total plasma concentration. Drugs with low protein binding have a large volume of distribution and they can equilibrate rapidly with tissues. High protein binding causes a small volume of distribution, slow equilibration with tissues, and are usually a predictor of elimination by metabolism. We employ Rapid Equilibrium Dialysis approach to measure plasma as well as other matrices protein binding taking Warfarin as the reference control.

Blood Partitioning
Knowledge of the partitioning behaviour of a therapeutic compound into red blood cells is important to the interpretation and understanding of a compound’s pharmacokinetic profile. A high partitioning ratio may also lead to the accumulation of the compound in red blood cells and therefore, this parameter serves as an indicator of potential hematotoxicity. We use fresh blood to conduct this study taking chloroquine as the reference control.

Metabolism studies are useful in:

  • Determining the initial rate at which compounds are metabolised
  • Investigating the major pathways of drug metabolism
  • Predicting in vivo pharmacokinetic properties
  • Investigating the potential for drug-drug interaction


At GVK BIO, we conduct the following assays:

  • Metabolic stability in interspecies using S9, microsomes or hepatocytes
  • Drug-drug interactions
  • CYP inhibition
  • Reaction Phenotyping
  • Reactive Metabolites (CN and GSH trapping)

Case Study: Metabolic Stability (Microsomes)

DMPK Studies

Pharmacokinetic Studies

GVK BIO has the capability to conduct all types of studies related to Pharmacokinetics of BCS 1 to BCS 4 classes of compounds. On an average about 450 to 500 different Pharmacokinetic studies are conducted in rodents (mice, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits) and non-rodents (Beagle dogs). We have expertise in difficult surgeries in mice (Cerebrospinal fluid, Bile and Bronchoalevolar Lavage collection).

Pharmacokinetics Work Flow:

Capabilities in PK Studies:

Accreditations, Compliance & Quality Systems:

DMPK Certification and Compliance

  • AAALAC accredited rodent vivarium facility
  • In house facility for rodent equipped IVC cages
  • Regulatory
    • PHS-NIH approved animal facility
    • OHSAS (Occupational Health & Safety Assessment Series)
    • Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (IAEC) constitute to an external member and CPCSEA nominee
    • Protocols of experimentation study are approved by IAEC and reviewed by the committee
    • Bio-waste Disposal Management registered under State Pollution Board
    • EMS (Enviornment Management System as per ISO 14001)
    • In life part of large animal PK studies with collaborator
    • Approved Radioactive facility and In House Radiation Safety Officer appointed by AERB
    • Radiation Safety Committee to monitor Radioactive material use and disposal
    • Approved by Institutional Bio Safety Committee

Quality System

  • Procurement of animals from certified vendors
  • Documentation of animal health status at receipt
  • Subjecting all newly arrived animals to quarantine
  • Physical examination of animals by veterinarian
  • Subjecting animals for clinical tests:
    • Parasitological examination
    • Haematological
    • Biochemical
    • Microbiological examination of faeces for pathogenic organisms on blood agar
    • Feed, water and bedding material analysis
  • Ethical efforts to avoid pain and distress to animals subjected to experimentation
  • Anesthesia and euthanasia as per CPCSEA guidelines

Mass Balance Studies

We perform mass balance with non-radiolabeled compounds. We can collect 49 different tissues after perfusion from animals following PK studies.

Case Study: Tissue Distribution

Other Specialised Assays

GVK BIO is a specialist provider of DMPK services and provide a range of in vitro DMPK assays. We offer highly customized and cost effective assay development services. Our scientists are well-versed with development of need-based DMPK assays in the most economical way.

  • CYP induction
  • GSH trapping
  • Cyanide trapping
  • Metabolite(s) identification
  • Soil metabolite(s) identification

That was our exhaustive list of DMPK Services. The highly trained and experienced DMPK studies team provides broad and in-depth expertise/advice to clients on appropriate study designs, execution of studies, and interpretation of the data. We offer capability and experience in the area of DMPK Services  to support discovery and development of drug candidates. Partner with GVK BIO to characterize your drug candidate’s DMPK properties. To get a quote of our DMPK studies, drop your details here or connect with us on twitter.

Case Study: Cytochrome P-450 Induction in Human Hepatocytes
Glutathione trapping, A Case Study
Case Study: Photodegradant(s) Analyses

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